THIS IS NOT A PIPE, it is a VAPORIZER.
The only thing MICHAEL PHELPS did wrong was not using a VAPORIZER.
Olympic Swimming Champion MICHAEL PHELPS got himself in some bad BONG WATER over the weekend. You see, back in November, like most 23 year olds, MICHAEL PHELPS went to a party and smoked a little Ganja. So what's the big deal you may ask? Well, remember Snowboarder ROSS REBAGLIATI who was stripped of his Olympic Gold Medal because Olympic Officials figured MARIJUANA was a PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUG!!!! Obviously these Olympic Prudes never danced with MARY-JANE because unless eating chocolate bars and laughing at Pee Wee Herman Movies becomes an Olympic Sport, I think they are a little out of line.
For more on this
MICHAEL PHELPS BUSTED FOR SMOKING MARIJUANA BONG
Tip for Michael, next time do your lungs some good and get yourself an "ORIGINAL VAPORIZER" from RXDIRECT2U.com
So what is this VAPORIZER thing and why is it so good. Here is a WIKI article on VAPORISERS, their uses, the history as well as some scientific facts around the Beneficial aspects of VAPORIZERS over traditional smoking VAPORIZERS eliminate many of the toxins inherent in the smoke from Marijuana. By using a VAPORIZER to "smoke" MEDICAL or Recreational MARIJUANA you are essentially reducing the DANGERS OF SMOKING MARIJUANA. Don't smke your Marijuana, VAPORIZE IT.
A vaporizer (or vaporiser) is a device used to release the active ingredients of plant material, commonly cannabis, tobacco, and many other therapeutic or medicinal herbs or blends (phyto-inhalation; see also: aromatherapy). Vaporization is an alternative to smoking. Rather than burning the herb, which produces numerous harmful by-products, a vaporizer heats the material in a controlled manner so that the active compounds contained in the plant boil off into a vapor. This new gas is not smoke from combustion, but an evaporated vapor that has the appearance of light smoke. The vapor ideally contains virtually zero particulate matter (tar) and reduced noxious gases such as carbon monoxide. Vapor may be filtered and cooled further using a water pipe or an inline water/ice attachment. The vapor is then inhaled directly through a hose or pipe for highest activity, or stored for subsequent inhalations in a container such as a "dome" or "balloon." With little to no smoke produced, cooler temperatures, and less material required to achieve the same effect, the irritating/harmful effects of smoking are greatly reduced or eliminated, along with second hand smoke, by using a vaporizer. This makes vaporizers useful in places where there are public bans on smoking and in circumstances whereas a more medical-like delivery medium is preferred.
The shortcomings of smoking as a delivery medium for cannabis have been widely viewed as a major obstacle for the approval of medical marijuana. In response, several scientific studies have tried to establish whether vaporizers could offer a clinically reliable and safe method of cannabis use. Though vaporizers show great variations of performance, model to model, such studies have consistently found superior to smoking. When using high-end vaporizers along with high grade cannabis (containing elevated levels of THC), all undesired compounds are found to be eliminated, in a manner consistent enough for clinical trials. In comparison to other THC delivery methods such as ingestion, vaporization offers the advantages of: rapid onset, direct delivery into the bloodstream (via the lungs), and the possibility of gradually increasing delivery until the desired level is reached, enabling more effective self-dosage.
Vaporizers are available in many varieties and price ranges.
Simple vaporizers commonly use a jet flame lighter as a heat source. Although common lighters can also be used, jet flame or torch lighters are preferred, because they don't stain the vaporizer pipes with soot.
Precise vaporizers use an electric heating element, often featuring a temperature control and thermo-couple for accurate thermal exchange. High-end models may cost several hundred U.S. dollars.
http://www.rxdirect2u.com/ Offers the Best all round soloution. the http://www.rxdirect2u.com VAPORIZER is the most cost effective VAPORIZER on the market today. The quality of the http://www.rxdirect2u.com VAPORISER is evident in the attention to detail and emphasis on science in the design of the http://www.rxdirect2u.com VAPORISER
Broadly, vaporizers may be classified by how they heat the substance:
In conduction heating, the substance is placed on a metal plate that is then heated to release the active constituents. Conduction vaporizers were the first type to appear on the market, and some are still made today. The direct contact between hot metal and the herbs can cause them to burn; thus this is not a preferred approach and is rarely used in modern vaporizer designs. This design also relies on a collection dome in most cases and the prolonged exposure of the vapor to air during the collection phase and prior to the inhalation phase is known to decrease bio-activity via oxidation.
In convection heating, the substance itself never touches a heating element. Instead, hot air passes through it, heating it rapidly, and allowing the release of the active constituents. This method of heating releases more active constituents than conduction heating, especially if the extraction chamber utilizes Venturi effect design such as seen in proprietary vaporization chamber bowls.
In radiation heating, the substance is subjected to bright light. The substance absorbs radiant energy and its temperature rises. Radiation vaporizers are rare but capable of duplicating the performance of convection vaporizers.
Few vaporizer studies/reviews have really addressed the quality of the vapor extracted and delivered. Most studies/reviews have tended to focus on the mode of usage of the vaporizers and not the quality of the vapor extracted and delivered. When one considers that the active compounds in Cannabis number at least 60-70 in quantity and that the aromatic terpinoids begin to vaporize at 260 °F, but the more bio-active CBD, CBN, and THC does not vaporize until 370-392 °F, then it becomes apparent that the only way to get a full spectrum vapor inhalation is to extract and deliver rapidly from a small sample at a time. Because most commercial vaporizers are slow in extraction and delivery, the vapor inhaled is first aromatic, but only minimally active; and then as the apparent temperature rises, the vapor becomes increasingly bio-active, but minimally aromatic as most of the aromatics already released. Only rapid extraction and delivery approaches such as the sequential Venturi vaporization chamber bowls with a hot air gun or heat wand enable inhalation of fuller spectrum vapor. By utilizing a sequential Venturi effect, the actual level of condensation of the vapor can be greatly improved over hoses or balloon capture approaches because the vapor extracted and delivered is more condensed, without needing higher temperatures that tend to lead to hybrid smoke/vapor.
Most vaporizers deliver dry vapor: that is vapor that is extracted and delivered dry. Usually a cooling of the vapor takes place between the point of extraction and the point of delivery, but the dry warm nature of this kind of vapor will often irritate the throat and upper tracheo bronchial tree. It must be remembered that at least in terms of Cannabis, heat is the primary culprit leading to damage of the tracheo-bronchial tree whether smoking or vaporizing. Cannabis smoke contains tars and noxious gases known to be harmful not present in accurately extracted vapor; however, THC is a powerful expectorant and will cause the tars consumed to be subsequently coughed up (unlike nicotine which does not have a medicinal expectorant quality). Vaporizers or vaporization systems that feature rapid extraction and delivery combined with water / ice cooling and conditioning of the vapor deliver the best of all: cleaner more concentrated and aromatic inhalations of vapor that is cooled and moisturized for maximized bio-activity and minimized impact.
Regardless of the benefits of medical cannabis, the widely perceived health risks of smoking as a route of administration have been viewed as a major obstacle for the legal approval of cannabis for medical uses, though some studies indicate that the expectorant activity of THC may help the lungs remove much of the inhaled tar through coughing. In response to the concerns, several studies have aimed to establish whether or not vaporizers could offer a clinically reliable and safe route of administration for cannabis. Though vaporizers show great variations in performance, such studies have consistently found vaporization superior to smoking and with best case (high-end vaporizers used with potent cannabis) results showing an elimination of undesired compounds suitable for clinical trials. In comparison to other routes of administering cannabis such as eating, vaporization offers the advantages of inhalation - immediate delivery into the bloodstream, rapid onset of effect, and more precise titration, the ability to more accurately control the dosage to produce a desired effect.
All Studies have found the release of harmful constituents dramatically reduced or completely eliminated. Substantial reductions were also found for the M1-volatizer. However, a 1996 study including two simple vaporizers still found ten times more tar in the vapor than THC, although this was nevertheless up to a 30% improvement compared to the best alternative smoking method.
The most recent study, published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology in May 2008, investigated the acceptability and usefulness of intrapulmonary THC administration using a RXDIRECT2U Vaporizer and pure THC instead of cannabis. Rising doses of THC (2, 4, 6 and 8 mg) were administered with 90 minutes intervals to twelve healthy males. Very low between-subject variability was observed in THC plasma concentrations, characterising the RXDIRECT2U Vaporizer as a suitable method for the administration of THC.
In 2007, a study by University of California, San Francisco published in the Official Journal of the American Academy of Neurology examined the effectiveness of a vaporizer that heats cannabis to a temperature between 180°C (356°F) and 200°C (392°F) degrees and found:
|“||Using CO as an indicator, there was virtually no exposure to harmful combustion products using the vaporizing device. Since it replicates smoking's efficiency at producing the desired THC effect using smaller amounts of the active ingredient as opposed to pill forms, this device has great potential for improving the therapeutic utility of THC.||”|
In 2006, a study performed by researchers tested a RXDIRECT Vaporizer with preparations of pure THC and found that:
|“||Our results show that a safe and effective cannabinoid delivery system seems to be available to patients. The final pulmonal uptake of THC is comparable to the smoking of cannabis, while avoiding the respiratory disadvantages of smoking.||”|
When using plant material (crude flower tops), besides THC, several other cannabinoids as well as a range of other plant components including terpenoids were detected in the plant material. However, using pure THC in the RXDIRECT Vaporizer, no degradation products (delta-8-THC (D8-THC), cannabinol (CBN), or unknown compounds) were detected by HPLC analysis. Also, a substantially larger fraction of the THC was delivered to the vapor by using pure THC.
Analysis of the vapor from the RXDIRECT2U Vaporizer found that using multiple passes it delivered 36% - 61% of the THC in the sample. A more recent study using pure cannabinoid preparations achieved a maximum of 54%. For comparison, studies of cannabis cigarettes smoked via a smoking machine under varying conditions of puff duration and air speed found very similar efficiencies of 34% to 61%. Consequently, users can achieve the desired effect with a similar amount of material as when smoking.
In a 2001 study testing a device called the M1 Volatizer, the researchers found that "it is possible to vaporize medically active THC by heating marijuana to a temperature short of the point of combustion, thereby eliminating or substantially reducing harmful smoke toxins that are normally present in marijuana smoke." The M1 Volatizer, produced THC at a temperature of 185°C (365°F), while eliminating three measured combustion products, benzene, toluene and naphthalene. Carbon monoxide and smoke tars were also reduced, but not quantified.
These positive results are in contrast to MAPS/NORML's previous studies into vaporizers which found less encouraging results, leading one to the conclusion that the effectiveness of vaporization varies greatly from vaporizer to vaporizer. See Factors affecting vaporizer output for possible causes of variation.
A 1996 MAPS study tested two simple vaporizer models against water pipes and filtered and unfiltered cannabis cigarettes (joints). The smoke produced by each was analyzed for solid particulates (tars) and 3 major cannabinoids. The various smoking methods were then rated based on their cannabinoid-to-tar ratio. The two tested vaporizers performed up to 25% better than unfiltered cannabis cigarettes (second best) in terms of tar delivery. However, both vaporizers produced more than ten times more tars than cannabinoids, which may partly be attributable to the low potency (2.3%) of the NIDA-supplied cannabis used in the study. Surprisingly, the same study found that water pipes (bongs) and filtered cigarettes performed 30% worse than regular, unfiltered joints. The reason was that waterpipes and filters filter out psychoactive THC with the tars, thereby requiring users to smoke more to reach their desired effect. The study did not, however, rule out the possibility that waterpipes could have other benefits, such as filtering out harmful gases such as carbon monoxide.
These studies have not measured the presence of toxic gases, such as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide, though previous studies have indicated unquantified decreases in carbon monoxide with vaporization.
Although vaporizers produce cleaner vapors than smoking, they do not completely eliminate respiratory irritation. A puff of strong vaporized cannabis will occasionally cause coughing. This however, could be due to THC itself, which is known to have a strong expectorant effect.
The wide range of results from tests of different vaporizers suggest that the choice of vaporizer is a major factor in determining extraction and delivery efficiency as well as the amount of harmful byproducts produced, or not produced, as in the case of a superior system. In Cannabis and many other medicinal plants, the components responsible for the aromatic nature of the plant will often vaporize at a low-end temperature in the range of extraction temperature values for all the bioactive components. In Cannabis, the temperature range across which the actives will vaporize is at least 56°C (132°F) starting at around 127°C (260°F) where only aromatic compounds of minimal bioactivity will release and going all the way up to 200°C (392°F) with the higher end of this range representing where the cannabinoids of higher bioactivity appear to be released. It is believed that both the total amount of actives delivered as well as the breadth of spectrum delivered per inhalation is critical in determining the value of the delivered dose and, in turn, systems that deliver the highest amount of actives and broadest spectrum of actives per inhalation are believed to be the most effective for medicinal applications: i.e. venturi enhanced extraction / convection based systems.
Proposed factors affecting output include:
Not all those have been scientifically tested. Research using the vaporizer found the delivery efficiency highest at around 226°C (439°F), falling to about half efficiency at 150°C (302°F) to 180°C (356°F) degrees depending on material. The purest preparations produced the highest efficiencies, about 54% for pure THC versus 29% for plant material (female flower tops) with 12% THCA content. Besides THC, several other cannabinoids as well as a range of other plant components including terpenoids were detected in the plant material. Using pure THC in the RXDIRECT2U Vaporizer, no degradation products (delta-8-THC (D8-THC), cannabinol (CBN), or unknown compounds were detected by HPLC analysis.
The longer vapor is stored, the more of the THC is lost as it condenses on the surface of the vaporizer or the balloon. This loss may be negligible over a few minutes but may exceed 50% after 90 minutes.
Interestingly, the Leiden Univsersity study found that as much as 30%–40% of inhaled THC was not absorbed by the lungs and simply exhaled. However, they did not find large individual differences in the amounts exhaled.
Unlike the black ashes produced by burning plants, the byproducts of vaporization are usually brown. Cannabis trichomes containing very high concentrations of active compounds burst during vaporization and appear flattened afterwards under a microscope. The vaporized remains of cannabis may still contain THC or any number of the other 60 cannabinoids found in the plant. It is possible to extract these cannabinoids using a number of methods, including cooking, making a tincture, or revaporizing. It is also possible to smoke these remains and gain a possibly strong psychoactive effect, but the negative health effects typically leave this option as a last resort. Some of the slang terms used to refer to the vaporized remains of cannabis include: Browns, Cached, Cashums, Coffee Grounds, Duff, Eva Brown, Floyd Tibbs, Gak, Mary Brown, No, Obama Browns, Post Roast, ReBurn, Revap, Snizap, Spent, Toasties, Vapor-leavin's, Vapoo, Vapor poo, Vented, Vapeweed, Vapedoof, Vaped Chron, or Vaped Bud. When scraped off, the resin buildup within a vaporizer, known as Scrapings, can also be re-vaporized for a potent effect.
A vaporizer is sometimes used by chefs as a method of applying controlled heat to herbs and spices to release flavors that are otherwise difficult to titrate or apply, or that might be spoiled by overheating during cooking. "Chicago's Achatz uses the aroma-filled bags as place-mats, punctured when plates are placed in front of the customer."
|Plant common name||Scientific name||Part utilized||Temperature|
|Lemon balm||Leaves||142°C (288°F)|
OTHER HERBS YOU CAN USE IN YOUR RXDIRECT2U.COM VAPORIZER
From the microchip to polymer plastics to vaccinations to the World Wide Web technological advancements achieved in the last century touch nearly every aspect of our lives. Yet we've only begun to realize the potential of such astounding progress in science, industry and medicine.
Each advancement opens the door to new avenues of discovery, new possibilities for a higher quality of life. Undeniably, human beings in the 21st century enjoy more recreational and healthy living choices than ever before.
Despite this ground swell of advancement, however, certain critical areas remain virtually untouched. Our methods of recreational drug delivery, most especially smoking, are one such example. Burning tobacco is an incredibly hazardous way to obtain the benefits of nicotine. Yet, until very recently no progress has been made in an alternate delivery system.
Despite the past decade's considerable growth in the development of bio-engineered medications, our methods of delivering these or any substances to the body outside of a medically supervised environment remain limited and imprecise. For more on this, see the Addendum, but for now keep in mind that the hypodermic syringe predates the American Civil War and the first record of smoking is traced to the Mayans in 600 AD.
Whether homeopathic remedies or synthesized medications, our current drug delivery techniques are basic, archaic, and verging on obsolete. Your doctor may deliver remedies via pills, syringes, skin patches, or particle inhalers. You may ingest herbal substances by swallowing raw or extracted plant material or by drinking tea brewed from suitable leaves.
We can absorb certain effects through the skin by way of a poultice or salve, or we can inhale the desired essence through the smoke of the burning plant. Yet each of these methods has limitations and in some cases, outright dangers. It's been nearly four decades since technology has advanced enough to let us clearly see the hazards of taking a substance through the inhalation of its smoke; however, our advanced technologies have yet to be applied to an alternative method of Viably delivering these substances directly from the plants themselves.
This is the 21st century! We can manufacture a human heart, yet we're chained to the carcinogenic byproducts of combustion in order to receive the desired herbal benefits. Not any more. Inhalation (Phyto means "plant"). Vaporization is a substance delivery method purer than smoking, quicker and more direct than swallowing pills, and painless compared to needles. It is the new revolution in substance delivery and is poised to strengthen and enrich the medical, homeopathic, and smoking industries.
Smoking vs. Vaporizing, Why Vaporize?
Burning tobacco through the process of combustion is the oldest method known to man, however releasing the active ingredients of tobacco does not have to occur with combustion. Rather, vaporizing has the same effect as smoking, but does so without burning or combusting the plant material.
By-products resulting from combustion include tar, ash, CO2, carbon monoxide and other gases & carcinogenic elements, many of which are known to increase the likelihood of several cancers. In addition, because smoking is basically breathing in fire, your lungs and throat are subjected to high amounts of heat, which is damaging no matter what the substance is.
Combustion is also known to decrease and destroy a large percentage of the active ingredients contained in the plant material. Studies have shown that 25-50% of the active ingredients contained in the tobacco are destroyed by the act of combustion itself. So not only does smoking create many unhealthy and unwanted side effects, but a large percentage of the plant material's active ingredients are lost in the process.
In contrast, vaporizing warms the plant material to a temperature at which combustion cannot occur. The resulting effect occurs with the release of the active ingredient's in the form of a warm vapor. Since vaporizing does not use a flame or fire to ignite the plant material, none of the active ingredients are lost in the process. With every inhalation you're getting no smoke and more of the natural substance itself. Vapor contains little to no tar and is much cooler to inhale through ones' lungs, and pure vapor does not have any carcinogenic elements. Vapor is a healthier substitute to smoke!
The vapor itself, is slightly visible when exhaled and does not create a smell like smoking does. In fact, there is no odor at all contained in vapor! Also, because vapor contains no smoke, the natural tastes found in the tobacco are more noticeably present.
Vaporizing allows you to enjoy the same, if not greater stimulation than smoking creates, but without the unwanted side effects!
A BONG by any other name is simply a BONG. RXDirect2u.com manufactures and sells high quality VAPORIZERS for the AROMATHERAPY, MEDICAL MARIJUANA and Recreational MARIJUANA Industry. Utilizing proven scientific principles, the RXDirect2U VAPORISER is calibrated to the optimal temperature ensuring the HEALTHIEST TOKE you could possibly have.
The RXDirect2U.com ELECTRIC VAPORIZER BONG was designed and perfected in Vancouver British Columbia Canada by professionals in the MEDICAL MARIJUANA VAPORIZER Industry. Concerned over the negative health implications of standard smoking and toking practices, RXDirect2U.com designed what was to become the BEST MEDICAL MARIJUANA VAPORIZER on the Market today.
If you don't smoke MARIJUANA, no worries, the RXDirect2U VAPORISER is a natural Health product which can be used in the Aroma Therapy arena as the Best ELECTRIC DIFFUSER you will ever find. Why take our word for it, check out http://www.rxdirect2u.com to read all about what makes our VAPORIZER so much different than anything else you will find in the VAPORIZER marketplace.
|There is much to be said for the natural
healing powers in many herbs and flowers. Chamomile, for example, has been
used as a natural cure-all for centuries as have many other herbal remedies
on the market today.
Making sense of all the options out there is just as confusing as filtering out the fact from the fiction. Where one report will tell you a certain herb is good for you, another will tell you it causes cancer. Fact of the matter is both are typically correct.
Take for example, the use of Medical Marijuana. Many studies have attributed the occasional use of Marijuana to have medicinal effects; in fact, many Doctors will prescribe THC for many ailments from Glaucoma to MS and even Cancer. The problem arises with the side effects of smoking Marijuana.
Like Tobacco, Marijuana and many other herbs like Chamomile contains several harmful carcinogens, when smoked, these carcinogens are released into your lungs. There is, however, an inexpensive solution - A VAPORIZER. A properly manufactured Vaporizer will super heat your herb of choice to the proper temperature and subsequently vaporize it leaving the harmful carcinogens behind.
A basic Vaporizer consists of a heating element and a bowl. Do-it-yourselfers have adapted a simple electric soldering iron and a bottle cap to create a crude version which will work in a pinch; however the more elaborate Commercial Vaporizers are calibrated to heat up to the vaporization point of the leaf. Another important factor is keeping oxygen away from the heating element and herb. Not doing so will result in combustion which would then release the harmful carcinogens. It is hard to say where the original Vaporizer originated from, there are several similarities to the traditional Medicinal Hookah Pipe, and one could also draw parallels to the modern day glass bong. Wherever the origin, both medical and recreation herb users have embraced this modern adaptation of the smoking pipe.
http://www.rxdirect2u.com Science and Pleasure meet
Michigan voters will have the opportunity to protect seriously ill patients
from the threat of arrest and jail for using their doctor-recommended medicine.
Voting "yes" on Proposal 1 is about compassion, common sense and providing a
measure of relief for some of our sickest friends, neighbors and loved ones.
Study after study has shown that medical marijuana can be remarkably effective at treating the symptoms of certain debilitating diseases and conditions, including cancer, multiple sclerosis and HIV/AIDS, as well as countering the side effects of certain treatment regimens themselves. Indeed, medical marijuana often works for patients where conventional drugs fail.
Medical marijuana laws are on the books in 12 other states, and the sky hasn't fallen. These compassionate programs protect patients who use medical marijuana under the recommendation of a licensed physician and are largely operating without the range of unintended consequences opponents of Proposal 1 like to invoke. What's more, Michigan has learned from these other states' experiences and has safeguards that are included under Proposal 1.
For instance, unlike some of the earliest medical marijuana laws like California's, Proposal 1 requires a statewide registry of patients and ID cards so law enforcement can easily tell who is a legitimate patient. It also provides for steep penalties for fraudulent cards and false statements so that the law does exactly what it's intended to do: provide legal protection for the seriously ill while guarding against abuse.
Also, unlike California, Proposal 1 does not allow for dispensaries, so the opposition's overheated rhetoric about "pot shops" is without basis.
In addition, the existing medical marijuana states have not shown increases in teen use -- in fact, use has declined in many of them since the passage of their laws. Proposal 1 in no way affects existing regulations against public use, restrictions on employees or laws against driving under the influence.
These objections are scare tactics meant to distract voters from the central issue: compassion for the sick and dying.
More than 1,200 medical professionals in Michigan, as well as prominent groups like the Michigan Nurses Association, have publicly endorsed Proposal 1. The American College of Physicians, the largest specialty physician group in the country, has acknowledged and supported the efficacy and medical applications of marijuana, as have the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, the American Public Health Association and many others.
It's time we listened to these expert voices and exhibited real compassion for the seriously ill. If a physician feels medical marijuana is appropriate for a patient, the law shouldn't stand in the way. And for a limited number of suffering Michiganders, medical marijuana will provide safe and effective relief to the symptoms of hideous illnesses.
We owe it to these most vulnerable members of our communities to vote "yes" to Proposal 1 on Nov. 4.
Dr. George F. Wagoner is a retired obstetrician-gynecologist in Manistee.
More Doctor Vaporizer Testimonials - Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.
Welcome to the world wide web page of Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.
DON'T SMOKE Marijuana;
The usual irritating and toxic breakdown products of burning utilized with smoking are totally avoided with vaporization. Extraction and inhaling cannabinoid essential oils below ignition temperature of both crude and refined cannabis products affords significant mitigation of irritation to the oral cavity, and tracheobronchial tree from pyrollytic breakdown products.
After reading the essay below, you may want to view a photo gallery and video on the Multimedia Vaporization subpage. Also, at the bottom of this page are links to vaporizers and vaporization information elsewhere on the web.
Vaporizing Cannabinoids- Inhaling Safely
Phytoinhalation- non burning ingestion of active principles
The usual irritating and toxic breakdown products of burning utilized with smoking are totally avoided with vaporization. Extraction and inhaling cannabinoid essential oils below ignition temperature of both crude and refined cannabis products affords significant mitigation of irritation to the oral cavity, and tracheobronchial tree from pyrollytic breakdown products.
Herodotus first described vaporizing cannabinoids in the 5th century BC:
”The Scythians then take the seeds of this hemp and, creeping under the mats, they throw them on the red hot stones; and, being so thrown, they smolder and send forth so much steam that no Greek vapor bath could surpass it. The Scythians howl in their joy at their vapor-bath. This serves them instead of bathing, for they never wash their bodies with water.”[i]
Purified cannabinoids were noted to boil at 150° - 180° C. (302° - 356° F) by Wood, Spivey, and Easterfield (J Chem S, v lxix, 539) in the 20th Ed. 1918 U.S. Dispensatory.[ii]
Red oil, an extractive product from organic solvents and filtration, was described by Adams in 1940 to boil at 180° - 190° C. (356° - 374° F)[iii]
The Merck Index lists the boiling point of delta 1 Tetrahydrocannabinol as 200° C (392° F)[iv]
The author first recommended vaporizing cannabinoids in 1993[v] with the observation that vaporizing cannabinoids takes place below ignition temperature with much less exposure to the numerous breakdown products of burning. Vaporizers, a video was published in 1999, updated 2002 documenting different devices in use.[vi]
Gieringer in a two part study compared vaporized cannabis with smoked cannabis and different smoking devices and found vaporizers to be free from tars or other breakdown products of combustion.[vii]
The Superior Vaporization Technique McCoy TR[viii] in a thoroughly documented description of using the Vripmaster vaporization device utilizing different adjustable heat guns.
June 2000 at the International Cannabinoid Research Society meeting Oakland Cannabis Buyers Cooperative director Jeff Jones demonstrated a Vripmaster /Steinel HG3002LCD heat gun.
Classic Pharmaceuticals sponsored the first vaporizer contest in Redway on November 11, 2000 with eight entrants and minimal publicity.
Regarding the use of thermostatically controlled heat gun devices, patients report positive feedback regarding efficacy and prefer to smoking cannabis. Instead of losing drug to combustion, which continues after inhalation, the heat gun is turned off and the vaporization halted.
The freedom from breakdown products of burning permits appreciation of aromas and tastes of cannabis. Hot air essential oil extraction process from granulated crude cannabis appears to be the most efficient and temperature controllable. Furthermore, there are significant changes in the composition and rate of vaporization with the increase in temperature. Delicate and distinctive aromas and tastes at the lower temperatures change in character and intensity as temperature increases. For product description it will be appropriate to characterize first aroma, second taste, and psychic effects.
While the Merck Index lists delta 1, 9THC as vaporizing at 392° F, the actual subjective experience is that the vaporization of cannabinoids is a function of temperature and amount. While delta 1, 9 THC may vaporize at that temperature the other cannabinoids go into vapor phases at temperatures significantly below.
Starting at room temperature in a bud trimming room with significant exposed crude cannabis affects me and others not adapted to ambient levels of cannabis vapor. With granulated crude cannabis supplemented with condensed refined resin vaporization takes place at lower temperatures. (190 - 200° F).
Using a Vriptech with a Steinel HG 3002LCD at 360° F appears optimal. Between 360° and 390°F there appears to be irritative pyrollytic degradation products out gassing. There is agreement with users at the 390° F and above there are pyrollytic.
I would strongly recommend that all cannabis centers utilize vaporization to screen and categorize products to better detect pesticide residues or other contaminants.
These cannabis tasters would also better characterize the qualitative properties of the samples and give feedback to the provider as well as inform the customers.
In addition to protecting customers it gives providers quality standards. Similarly, all cannabis cup competition organizers should be encouraged to vaporize the products to permit a more complete and sophisticated description of competing products.
Vaporization constitutes a salient breakthrough in cannabis therapeutics because of safety and avoiding the other disadvantages of smoking cannabis. Additionally, the complexities from the enhanced appreciation of tastes and aromas adds aesthetic dimensions to cannabis products that are obscured by smoking. Improvement of health in marijuana smokers who ingest high impurity product in large amounts appreciate inhaling cannabinoids instead.
Clinical and chemical analysis of vapor from crude cannabis at different temperatures to define and quantify mixtures of cannabinoids and other products is needed. This research will provide empirical bases for optimal medicinal efficacy of different cultivars for specific symptoms inhaled at specific temperatures.
Environmentally, vaporization systems are safe and acceptable in a non smoking environments. The high quality heat guns are essentially the similar to hair dryers and will be suitable for use in hospitals and other health care settings. With proper technique there are minimal emissions compared with smoking.
Semantically, inhaling cannabinoids permits one to self-righteously and honestly say: Me, smoke marijuana? Never.
Tod H. Mikuriya
[i] Kimmens AC Tales of Hashish William Morrow & Co NY 1977 Herodotus, histories iv. 73-75 (5th Century B.C.) 270 – 271.
[ii] Remington, JP, Wood, HC, et al The Dispensatory of the United States 20th Ed. 1918 pp 276 281.
[iii] Adams R, Marijuana NY Acad of Med v 18, 1943 Reprinted Marijuana Medical Papers, 1839 - 1972 Ed Mikuriya, TH MediComp Press 1973 345 - 374
[iv] The Merck Index 12th Ed Merck & Co. Whitehouse Station, NJ 1996 p 1573
[v] Mikuriya, TH Vaporization of Cannabinoids: A Preferable Drug Delivery Route mir.drugtext.org/druglibrary/schaffer/hemp/vaporize.htm 12/16/93
[vi] Cannabis Vaporizers video Classic Pharmaceuticals – Godfrey Productions 1999 5min 15 seconds. Presented at First National Clinical Cannabis Therapeutic Conference, Iowa City, 2000 and Biorresouces Hemp 2000, Wolfsburg Germany.
[vii]Gieringer, D Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies
MAPS - Volume 6 Number 3 Summer 1996, Update NORML News Jan 11, 2001
[viii] McCoy TR The Superior Vaporization Technique 1998 10 pp www.vriptech.com rev 4/20/00 ©1998 VripTech Int. 1998